One of the first things accomplished under the new law was Governor McGraw’s purchase of the fractional school section to be used as the new site. After advertising the auction to be held on the King County Courthouse steps, in Seattle, the Governor met all bidders, the final price being $28,313.75. The Regents paid interest on that sum each year until, a few years later, the total price was paid into the school fund and the land became the property of the State of Washington for University purposes.
The Board of Regents avoided the error of hiring an architect outright as had been done by the Board of University Land and Building Commissioners. The Regents inserted advertisements in the newspapers of Seattle, Spokane and Tacoma on October 30, 1893, calling upon architects to submit plans in a competition. The prize was to be $1000 and acceptance as the architect for the new main building, the cost of which was not to exceed $125,000. The contest was carefully safeguarded and was to close on February 17, 1894. It was then found that Charles W. Saunders, an architect in Seattle had won the prize. Advertisements for bids on the construction work gave May 9, 1894, as the date of opening the bids. There were seventeen of them, ranging frcan $112,000 to $136,418. That of Cameron & Ashenfelter of Spokane, being lowest, was accepted. Not long after the beginning of work, Mr. Cameron withdrew from the firm and his partner Harry C. Ashenfelter continued to the end. He was the victim of a tragedy just after the work was drawing to a close. While tarring the interior of the water tank (now Chimes Tower) the tar caught fire and he was burned to death.
The building was to be a very substantial one three stories high, of sandstone walls, terra-cotta trimming, slate roof, copper gutters and plate-glass windows. When the foundation work had progressed far enough to justify the placing of the official cornerstone in the northeast corner, July 4, 1894, was chosen as an appropriate date. As many of the State officers, Regents, members of the Faculty, Contractor Ashenfelter and other active workers were Masons, it was decided to request the customary cornerstone ceremonies of that Order under the leadership of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Washington. It was an elaborate occasion. A special train brought many participants and citizens. Among the outstanding pioneers present were Rev. Daniel Bagley, affectionately called "Father of the University,” and Arthur A. Denny, donor of the major part of the old campus. Their brief remarks were considered most
auspicious. It was recalled that similar ceremonies attended the laying of the corner-stone of the old main building in 1861. That old corner-stone was opened and its historic contents, with many other documents, were carefully sealed in the new and larger corner-stone with patriotic and sentimental fervor.
The sandstone specified was from Pittsburg Querry [sic], in the neighborhood of Enumclaw, Washington. Court trouble of the owners made necessary for Contractor Ashenfelter to make arrangements with the Receiver to quarry the stone and freight it to the new campus for dressing. This left on hand a surplus of stone when the main building was finished. That stone was utilized in the construction of the first portion of the Astronomical Observatory. Professor J. M. Taylor had secured a fine telescope for which he had helped to build a small Observatory on the old campus. The accidental surplusage of sandstone thus became a matter of good fortune for the Department of Astronomy.
Similarly the new campus was given a large wooden gymnasium and drill hall before those first building operations ceased. Second Lieutenant John L. Hayden, First Artillery, United States Army, had been a student in the Territorial University of Washington, before going to the Military Academy at West Point. He had secured appointment as Professor of Military Science and Tactics and Assistant in Mathematics in the State University where his father was President of the Board of Regents. When he learned that there was an unexpended balance in the 1893 appropriation, he had little difficulty in translating his enthusiasm into results by causing the construction of the gymnasium and drill hall. The floor was counted the largest in the State of Washington at that time.
For purposes of securing heat and water a power house was constructed on the shore of Lake Washington from which pipes were extended to the water-tank and the main building.
That completed the first work of construction on the new campus. When the contract was let for the main building, it was stipulated that the work on it would be completed by March 1, 1895. For many reasons that was found to be impossible. In fact workmen were finishing tasks on the building when it was opened for academic work
on Wednesday, September 4, 1895. In [sic] was called Administration Building. The rear wing was constructed for an auditorium. Over its entrance from the main floor was painted in large gold letters “Denny Hall.” It was a gracious tribute to Arthur A. Denny while he still lived. Those golden letters still remain, although the auditorium has been changed into offices and recitation rooms. The whole building has long since been known as Denny Hall, a sentimental center in the midst of many newer structures.
The State Constitution provides that all State appropriations are for two years only and balances unexpended at the end of the biennial period lapse into the State Treasury. The fourth biennial session of the Legislature assembled at Olympia on Monday, January 14, 1895. Several University problems would come before that session including the handling, for the first time, of an unexpended balance of a biennial appropriation.
The members of the Legislature were fully aware of the University problems through the Regents’ Report and through the knowledge that the work of construction on the new campus was under full headway. The bills to solve these problems were all passed near adjournment as they were approved by the Governor within the Constitutional limit of ten days after adjournment. The unexpended balance of $39,000 from the 1893 appropriation of $150,000 was handled in a separate law approved March 21, 1895. The item for two years of maintenance, $90,000, was included in the general appropriation law, approved on March 21. An extra appropriation law, providing a power house, a heating, ventilating and water plant, furniture and other needs was approved on March 26. In the “Deficiency Appropriations” law, approved on March 26, were three University items: two for the expenditures by the Board of University Land and Building Commissioners amounting to $20,365.55 and interest, $6,226.83; and one for C. B. Bagley to pay for his making copies of his father’s records of the old grant of land - $500 and interest, $35.
As before, these appropriations carried promises that the moneys [sic] would be repaid by the sale of University lands. One of the three additional laws of that session sought to provide a way for a speedy repayment of the appropriations. This was a law, approved March 13, to bond the University lands for the sum of $225,000, proceeds from
the sale of the bonds to revert into the State Treasury. Another law prohibited the sale of intoxicating liquors on the University grounds or "within two miles thereof." The third law, approved March 20, related to the Board of Regents. Sections of Hill’s Annotated Statutes and Codes of the State of Washington were altered so as to conform with the Constitution in having Regents appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. That legally abolished the provision for ex-officio Regents. There were to be seven Regents for terms of six years, four to constitute a quorum. They were to receive no compensation other than their traveling expenses.
Students and Faculty were keenly alive to the reorganization work that followed the legislation of 1893. It was clear that continuance of activities on the old campus would be of short duration. In preparing the Catalogue that appeared in the summer of 1893, the Faculty published therein from Hill’s Code the sections of Territorial laws still in force. They included the so-called "Herren Law" of 1890 in full. The law creating the University Land and Building Commission was omitted, the Faculty saying it "is not given here, as the following act virtually repeals the act of March 7, 1891." There then followed the full text of the law approved on March 14, 1893. This was complete recognition on the part of the institution that the time of its reorganization had arrived.
Two additions to the Faculty were announced in this Catalogue: Charles Hill, Professor of Chemistry and Physics and Second Lieutenant John L. Hayden, Military Science and Tactics. A more significant recognition of the approaching reorganization was the division of the work into "Coordinate Colleges." Most of this work was listed under the College of Literature, Science and Arts. An extensive expansion was made under the heading "Normal College of the University of Washington." Normal degrees had been given for ten years but this is the most elaborate announcement of a Normal College. Professor J. M. Taylor is published as Principal. Three years of work is outlined, with an advanced course, or post-graduate year, being added. The Department of Military Science and Tactics is outlined and the Conservatory of Music is continued with Miss Julia L. Chamberlin as Director. The Faculty was carrying on as best they could. There was no
direct statement about a prospective removal to a new campus.
During the service of that Catalogue, and before the succeeding one was issued in the summer of 1894, rapid changes progressed. Membership in the Board of Regents and the Faculty remained practically the same. In the organization of the Board of Regents, David Kellogg was Chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds. After the plans of the new building had been accepted, it became necessary to choose the location. An official group visited the new campus and Regent Kellogg stuck his umbrella into the ground where they decided the corner-stone should be. Fortunately, Architect Saunders took careful bearings of that fine location for it was only logged-off land and some fellow stole the umbrella.
As their Secretary, the present writer was able to render an appreciated service to the Regents while they were struggling with the reorganization. As a boy he had contacted David Starr Jordan in 1880 while he was visiting Puget Sound working on fishes for the Census Report of that year. Then, while Secretary of the Young Naturalists, he arranged a series of lectures in Puget Sound cities for the eminent educator who had become President of Stanford University. Naturally, a friendship had developed. He wrote to President Jordan to see if he could meet in conference with the Board of Regents. His reply stated that he was going to Yellowstone Park, via Portland, and if the Regents wanted to divert his journey that much he would gladly meet with them in Seattle. The glow of approval on the faces of the Regents when that letter was read to them is remembered to this day. President Jordan came. It is difficult to measure the extent of his helpfulness at that critical time. He discussed the aims and purposes of a university of the modern type. He answered unnumbered questions. He pointed out the departments of instruction that might well be stressed in the University of a new and ambitious State and praised the elective system of Stanford University where the students could choose the departments and courses that would best prepare them for the lives they were planning to lead.
The Regents were contemplating an early expansion of the instructional staff. To their questions along these lines, President Jordan named a number of desirable men and women with a discussion of their preparation and capacity. Notes were kept of these for
future use. One of them deserves consideration here. He thought that geology certainly needed early attention in the University of Washington. He knew a young geologist then in Rockland, Maine, who had been doing fine geological survey work. His name was Henry Landes. He had had the good fortune of marrying Mrs. Jordan’s sister. If it were not for that family relationship, he would have been added to the Faculty of Stanford University. Within a year Professor Landes became a member of the Faculty of the University of Washington where he has remained as Professor, Dean and Acting President for the year 1914-1915.
One of the instant results of that conference with President Jordan was an order by the Board of Regents that their Secretary take the Catalogue of Stanford University and use it as a model while he prepared copy for the next issue of the Catalogue of the University of Washington.
Two other unexpected services of the Secretary of the Board should be mentioned here even at the risk of accusations of egotism. Regent A. P. Mitten, being a physician, had been appointed a committee of one to report on the feasibility of a college of medicine. Just before the expiration of his term as a Regent, he rendered his report advising against the undertaking of such work at that time. Regent Frank Allyn thereupon excused himself for not being ready to report as the committee of one on a plan for a college of law. After adjournment the Secretary volunteered to Regent Allyn to prepare the report for him. Though a difficult task, it was ready for the next meeting of the Board. Judge Allyn accepted it. With his signature attached, it was adopted by the Board. The foundation was then complete for that Law School that was to become effective a few years later. A. B. Stewart, founder of the Stewart & Holmes Drug Company, was President of the Washington State Pharmaceutical Association. In his annual address of 1894, he called attention to the educational need in pharmacy. He helped to gather catalogues of other schools and on July 10, 1894, the Secretary presented a report and outline of courses. This was promptly adopted by the Board of Regents. The Department, afterwards School, of Pharmacy, became a part of the University of Washington.
The Catalogue of 1894, prepared on the Stanford model, was the last one to be
used on the old campus. The changes from the previous one were quite marked. Practically no changes were recorded in the membership of Board of Regents or Faculty but the curriculum was arranged as Departments of Instruction under the general head of Faculty of Literature, Science and Arts. What had been the Normal College here became the Department of Pedagogy. There were nine such Departments in the following order: Philosophy, Greek, Latin, Mathematics and Astronomy, Natural Science, Physical Science, Modern Languages, English and History, and Pedagogy. Three Special Departments included Military Science and Tactics, Conservatory of Music, and Department of Art. This organization continued for a few years when the division into Colleges and Schools was resumed.
The other phase from that Stanford model - system of free electives - was not so completely adopted. What was chosen was a system of electives within limits. The announcement was: "A student may elect as his major the courses of any one of these departments, and after he has chosen his major subject no change will be permitted without consent of the Faculty.” That was a distinct departure from the former specified and outlined courses leading to a degree.
The degrees were increased in number, becoming, in reality, a part of the elective system. Those who elected a major in Philosophy would be in line for the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy; Greek or Latin, Bachelor of Arts; Mathematics or Science, Bachelor of Science; Modern Languages or English and History, Bachelor of Letters; Pedagogy, Bachelor of Pedagogy. This number of degrees did not survive beyond the departmental system.
There is abundant evidence that this last Catalogue of the old campus was preparing the way for work on the new one. As frontispiece, is published a picture of Architect Saunders’ design for the new main building, or Denny Hall. Outline plans of the three floors and basement were also published. Under the heading "General Information,” a brief history of the University closed with a description of the new campus and the statement that the institution had been re-locate. It should be added that members of the Faculty began to seek residences near the new campus.
The Board of Regents had not only assumed full legal responsibilities as to lands and buildings, including the new structures, but it was also thoroughly alive as to the academic needs and progress of the institution. Frequent meetings were held for the consideration of the proposed addition and expansion of departments and improvement of the instructional staff. President Gatch was aware that those discussions included the desire for a new executive. On April 30, 1895, he tendered his resignation as President of the University. However, he was persuaded by the Regents to continue his service until a new President could be selected. At the same time he was chosen for the chair of Political and Social Science. His former chair of Mental and Moral Science was transferred to an available veteran, Edward John Hamilton, D.D., S.T.D., who had been a professor in those fields in Hanover College, Indiana; College of New Jersey, Princeton; and Hamilton College, New York. Another veteran engaged was Adolph Frederic Bechdolt, Ph.D., who had had an extensive educational career in Pennsylvania, Minnesota and North Dakota. He was to start his work in the University of Washington in the chair of History and Anglo-Saxon. William Franklin Edwards, who had been for ten years a Laboratory Assistant and Instructor in the University of Michigan, was engaged to be Professor of Physics. Charles Francis Reeves was the new Instructor in German. He had been a member of the faculty of the State College of Pennsylvania for eleven years. George Millard Davison was to be the new Instructor in Latin and Greek. He came directly from the Seattle High School after having graduated from Cornell and a year of teaching in the Ithaca High School. Charles W. Vander Veer was engaged as Instructor in Physical Culture and Hygiene.
These new members of the Faculty were engaged in time for inclusion in the Catalogue printed in the summer of 1895 for use after removal to the new campus. But between that printing and the beginning of the next academic year on Wednesday, September 4, 1895, other additions were made to the Faculty. The Regents had elected Mark Walrod Harrington, A.M., LL.D., as the new President of the University. He had just finished his work as Chief of the United States Weather Bureau and previously had been Professor of Meteorology at the University of Michigan. Henry Landes, A.M., was
added to the Faculty as Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. Henry Havelock Hindshaw, B.S., was elected Curator of the Museum, and Trevor Kincaid as Laboratory Assistant, Department of Biology and Physiology.
Ambition was the key-note in that time of transition. Professor Edwards had been chosen as Professor of Physics and Chemistry. As the work of arranging the laboratories and courses progressed it was found that such work should be divided. The Catalogue published him as Professor of Physics. However, there was published an outline of studies in the Department of Chemistry with this note attached: "A professor for this department was not elected when this outline of instruction for the Department of Chemistry was prepared, and it will necessarily be enlarged for the collegiate year of 1895-96.” Henry Coffinberry Myers, Ph.D., F.C.S., was elected and became the first Professor of Chemistry. The proposed work of Professor Edwards was thus reduced but he was expected to begin the work also in Electrical Engineering, a new department announced for 1895-96.
The Regents shared the popular feeling that the development of mining would hasten recovery from the depression of 1893. In the Catalogue published in the summer of 1894 is found the announcement of a School of Mining with tentative courses of instruction, the opening paragraph being: "A school of mining has been added to the University by the Board of Regents, and a special instructor will be secured to take charge of this department. The following outline of courses of study in the school of mining is here presented.” That promise was delayed in its fulfilment. The next year’s Catalogue continued the promise as well as a preliminary outline for the Department of Geology and Mineralogy. Professor Henry Landes, as stated above, joined the faculty and in the Catalogue published in 1896 are his enlarged courses for the Department of Geology. In that announcement is found this statement: ”It is the expectation that there will be established very soon in the University a school of mines. In that event, the majority of the courses offered in geology will be required work for those who enter this school.” This explains the delay in the final establishment of the School of Mines and shows also that Professor Landes was the first instructor for that School.
The College of Pharmacy also shared in that period of ambitious expansion. In the first Catalogue (1895) for the new campus, Charles Hill is listed as Professor of Biology and Physiology and Acting Dean of Department of Pharmacy. In the rather elaborate announcement of the new department he is listed among the corps of instructors as Acting Dean and Professor of Chemistry, Botany and Microscopy. With him were included Oscar J. Smith, Ph.C., Pharmacopoeial Preparations and Pharmacognosy; W. H. T. Barnes, Lecturer in Pharmacy; Emil Bories, M.D., Practical Pharmacognosy and Toxicology. An advisory board comprised five officers and members of the Washington State Board of Pharmacy. That Board and the Washington State Pharmaceutical Association adopted resolutions in September, 1894, voicing complete cooperation with the projected work of instruction. That elaborate organization did not endure. The next Catalogue (1896) listed Dr. H. C. Myers as Professor of Chemistry and Dean of the Department of Pharmacy. He conducted all the instructional work of both departments. The statement preceding the courses in Pharmacy declared: "Hereafter the pharmaceutic degree will be given only as post graduate to the baccalaureate degree of B.S." There followed an interim of decline before the College of Pharmacy would emerge again on a durable foundation.
There were numerous other evidences of ambition during the period here considered. Lieutenant John L. Hayden, Professor of Military Science and Tactics, was given additional work as Assistant Professor of Mathematics under Professor J. M. Taylor. This allowed those two to begin the Department of Civil Engineering. The addition of Charles W. Vander Veer to the faculty initiated the Department of Physical Culture and Hygiene. While he became a wonderful coach of athletics, he was much more than that. He had been Professor of Physical Culture at Union College, 1876-92; Young Men's Christian Association of Schenectady, N.Y., 1879-89; Catholic Union, Albany, N.Y., 1890-92; Case School of Applied Science, 1893; Seattle Athletic Club, 1894-95. In the same line he was to impress himself indellibly [sic] upon the student activities of the University of Washington. As in the cases of Pharmacy and Mining, promises were made of work to begin in Pedagogy, Law and Medicine. Work was offered in Pedagogy during the following year but the name was changed to Paideutics and the courses were
conducted by Rev. Edward John Hamilton, Professor of Mental and Moral Science, Paideutics and Oratory. There was to be further delay in the case of Law and a resolution was adopted by the Board of Regents on June 5, 1895, saying that work in a Department of Medicine would begin when "conditions relating thereto shall justify that step.” The Regents also declared that they would retain the buildings on the old campus for possible use by such departments as Law, Medicine and Music. The Conservatory of Music and the Art Department ended as such on the old campus. The Directors resigned and the promise was published that the work in each case would probably be revived later.
Two notable forward steps were taken in the initiation of the Museum and the Arboretum. The Museum had its real beginnings in the natural history work of Mrs. Anderson and Professor O. B. Johnson and the collections of the Young Naturalists. At the close of the World’s Columbian Exposition at Chicago, more than a carload of specimens contributed by many exhibitors were brought to the University. Mr. Henry H. Hindshaw was engaged as the new Curator of the Museum after years of work at that Exposition. He brought quantities of geological specimens as an addition to the Museum. Remarkable growth has attended this unit of the University, culminating in a law approved on March 6, 1899, declaring it to be the State Museum of Washington.
The Arboretum, from its nature, is less comprehensible as a unit. It is spread all over the campus. Mr. Hindshaw had worked on landscaping in Chicago and was given the additional title of Curator of the Arboretum. He began the work of saving good specimens of native trees and of planting trees from other climes. Many of these trees are labelled and are continually studied by those interested. There is a particular obligation resting upon the University for the maintenance of the Arboretum. When the great law of 1893 was being enacted, there were several Senators and Representatives who did not understand why the limits of the new campus, 160 acres in the law of 1891, were being enlarged to embrace the entire fractional section (355.19 acres). To all these it was explained that eventually there would be great need of buildings and
playfields and in addition the whole campus was to serve as an arboretum. These
statements satisfied all but one conscientious Representative who got excited as the vote drew near. He sought a conference with the writer, saying:
”I want to do my duty to the State and its University. I have read this bill and have listened to all the arguments for enlarging the new campus, but, Meany, tell me, what in hell is an arboretum?”
He was reminded that this was a timber region and in the arboretum would be gathered living specimens of all kinds of trees that would thrive here, for the guidance of future generations in perpetuating timber resources. He expressed gratitude and promised to vote for the bill. That helps to explain the practically unanimous vote and certainly establishes the duty of maintaining the arboretum.
The students came from the old campus to the new one with the beginnings of activities that were to expand with rapidity. Before 1885 they had organized literary societies, with debating as a feature. They had a baseball diamond, a set of boxing gloves, parallel and horizontal bars and one football. This they kicked for distance and height. Many a time that football reached the roof of the old building, necessitating a clamber up the numerous stairs when the rescuer would give the ball a wonderful kick to the boys waiting down below. During the decade that followed they organized teams and began contests in the premier collegiate sport. Such contests were managed by the Athletic Association. The first Catalogue for the campus (1895-96) announced: ”The Athletic Association is an organization of students. Its aim is to encourage all healthful and legitimate sports. This association receives every possible assistance from Mr. Vander Veer, who is at the head of the department of Physical Culture and Hygiene.” This announcement is followed by another: "The Women’s Athletic Association has for its object the encouragement of physical culture among the women students.”
These two associations were destined to merge into the larger organization known as the Associated Students of the University of Washington, almost always referred to as the A.S.U.W. In fact that same Catalogue foretold that subsequent merger in the following statement: ”The entire body of students is organized into a student assembly, which decides on all questions relating to the students and
arising among them, and to which the administration refers some of the problems usually decided by the Faculty. The executive body of the Student Assembly is the Representative Council, consisting of the President of the University ex_ officio and ten students selected by vote from the several classes. The ten members for the session 1895-96 were: John Haan (vice chairman), George M. Allen, Harry F. Giles, from the Senior Class; James E. Gould, John Jackol, from the Junior Class; Albert D. Durham, Edward McMahon, from the Sophomore Class; Emma B. Roll (secretary), Sherman W. Foote, from the Freshman Class.” The tenth member was, of course, the ex officio one.
The Oratorical Association had gone far enough to secure from the King County Bar Association an annual prize of §100 to be competed for by seniors in the institutions of highest grade in Washington, Oregon arid Idaho. 5hwo clubs sought to promote good fellowship among the students of Latin and Greek. The Young Men's
Christian Association and the Young Women's Christian Association each maintained active branches within the University. The students also maintained a monthly newspaper, The Pacific Wave, which at this time was officered as follows: Editor, George H. Allen; business manager, Sam J. Miller; associate editors, M. M. Moss and Maud E. Harmon; society editor, H. F. Giles; athletic editor, Tom M. Alderson; exchange editor, Maud Barrows.
The students with these and other organizations among themselves were well equipped to enter upon the new era, but there was one prompt action that revealed still further their academic alertness. Sensing the need of instruction in mechanical and freehand drawing, and knowing that the Department of Art had been discontinued, they organized the T-Square Club. ‘They elected Professor Charles Hill as President and filled the other offices from their own ranks: Warner M.
Karshner, vice president; Marion Edwards, secretary; Janes S. Sheafe, treasurer; which officers, with Sylvester Bethel, Charles de Q. Whittle and Trevor C. D. Kincaid, comprised the board of directors. They consulted the Washington Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and followed the advice obtained by
securing as their instructor Mr. A. J. Russell of Tacoma, a graduate of the National School of Fine Arts, of Paris. Later this volunteer work was absorbed by the University in its regular curriculum.
Mark Walrod Harrington was President of the University during its first year on the new campus. One significant change was the naming of William Franklin Edwards, Professor of Physics, as Dean of the Faculty. This was the first appearance of that office which was to have an elaborate development in the years that followed. President Harrington retained the departmental organisation of the collegiate work and added thereto Department XV - Terrestrial Physics and Geography. He had sought a conference with the present writer and said: MThe President and the Registrar are not expected to give collegiate courses but I wish you to join me in volunteer work. You have been studying and writing in the fields of local history and forestry and my field is meteorology. Let us combine and offer these elective courses during the coming year."
For one of us that was the beginning of a career of teaching in the University of Washington that has continued to the present time.
There were no premonitions that before the academic year of L896-L897 should end the University would he thrown into a turmoil. It is true that the State was in the midst of a strenuous political campaign. The formerly dominant Republican Party was combatting the Fusion Party, comprising the Democratic, Populist and Free Silver Republican Parties. Even after it was known that the Fusion Party had succeeded in electing its ticket of State officers and a majority of the Legislature, friends of the University still hoped that it would not be disturbed. This hope was soon shattered.
The new Governor, John R. Rogers, had served as a Populist member of the Legislature before his nomination for the Governorship. Three recess, or between-sessions, appointments of Regents George Hyde Preston of King County, R-E.M. Strickland of Spokane County and Charles A. Riddle of King County by Governor JPfea E. McGraw came regularly - from the Secretary of State's office to the Senate on January 14, 1897. They were then pending, with other such recess appointments for ratification by the Senate. On February 4, Governor Rogers surprised the Senate with this brief message: "Gentlemen - I have
the honor to withdraw all the nominations submitted to the Senate during the pending 143
”Can he do that?" exclaimed Senator Warburton.
"I guess he has done it,” was a reply.
Governor Rogers smiled when he was told of that colloquy and remarked: "Tell them to read up on Andrew Jackson.”
From that surprise action, Governor Rogers was in a position to select three new Regents for the University, to which number another was soon added by the expiration of the term of Regent John F. Gowey, of Olympia. He did so by appointing four prominent Seattle men who had been associated with him in the Fusion Party or "Free Silver" campaign. The four new Regents were John Wiley, John P. Fay, George H. King and Rev. Clark Davis. Mr. Wiley became President of the new Board and Mr. Davis, Secretary, but Mr. Wiley died on July 13, 1897, and Mr. Fay was elected to succeed him as President. Other changes occurred through resignations and removals until the Board of Regents destined to serve through the administration of Governor Rogers comprised the following: George H. King, Seattle, President; Alden J. Blethen, Seattle; Charles M. Easterday, Tacoma; Tames Z. Moore, Spokane; Lincoln D. Godshall, Everett; Richard Winsor, Seattle; and John P. Hoyt, Seattle.
It should be here recorded that, in spite of the above evidences of partisan politics, Governor Rogers won distinct favor. He was the only State officer of his party re-elected in 1900. He had demonstrated a rugged honesty. He forgave the member of the faculty against whom his main antagonism had been aimed, while the Regents he selected were successful in protecting and building up the institution. He was reinaugurated in January, 1901, but died soon thereafter, being succeeded by Lieutenant Governor Henry McBride, Republican. The Board of Regents was not disturbed and in that way the wholesome influence of John R. Rogers was continued.
That early political disturbance in the Board of Regents was bound to be reflected in the Faculty and in the student body. President Harrington resigned on March 24, 1897, when Dean William Franklin Edwards was elected to the Presidency. Charles Francis
' . • -V
Reeves, Professor of German, became Dean of the College of Liberal Arts. President Edwards was esteemed as an expert in science, especially in the field of physics, but he was not cordial or successful in dealing with men. One of his first lines of attach was against Edward John Hamilton, Doctor of Divinity, who was Professor of Mental and Moral Science, and Oratory. His term was made to end as of July 31, 1898. That created something of a religious war. The newspapers reported that President Edwards had declared that he himself was an agnostic. Ministers, parents and students became excited. The student body reached a low ebb of 164 but recovered somewhat before the year ended and evidences of change appeared. President Edwards was dismissed on October 1, 1897. He had transferred Professor Harrington-*^ work to Thaddeus Lincoln Bolton, Professor of Philosophy and Education, whose tern was also brief ending on July 31, 1898, after which Frederick Welton Colegrove, another Doctor of Divinity, was installed as Professor of Philosophy. The religious war was ended.
The only Catalogue bearing the name of President Edwards as the executive of the institution is that for the year of 1896-97, carrying the announcements for 1897-98.
Its outstanding contribution lies in the abandonment of Departments as units of organization and the adoption of six College units as follows: College of Literature, Science
and the Liberal Arts, College of Engineering, College of Mines and Mining, College of Chemistry, College of Medicine and Surgery, College of Law and the Department of Military Science and Tactics. Of course the first named College embraced most of the former Departments and the main instructional work of the institution. The other Colleges as outlined were largely expressions of hope. The election of Almon H. Fuller, August 1, 1898, as Professor of Engineering may be taken as the beginning of the College of Engineering. The work of Professor Landes in Geology and Mineralogy continued to lay foundations for a College of Mines and Mining. Similarly, the work of Professor Myers would be considered the start for a College of Chemistry, although the formerly announced College of Pharmacy was entirely omitted. No instructors were announced for the College of Medicine and Surgery or for the College of Law. The organization with colleges as units has been continuously followed with numerous expansions and amendments.
That Catalogue of 1896-97 also announced the acquisition of Janes Allen Smith, Ph.D., who served with unusual distinction as Professor of Political Science and finally as the first Dean of the Graduate School. Those services continued until his death, on January 30, 1926. However, he resigned the Deanship of the Graduate School
on February 1, 1920. In that position he was succeeded by Dean Frederick Morgan
Padelford who has administered the office since that date. ...
when the Regents terminated the Presidency of William Franklin Edwards they selected Dean Charles Francis, Reeves as Acting President and entered upon a wide search for a new and permanent President. Their choice fell upon Frank Pierrepont Graves then j President of the University of Wyoming. His service as President of the University of Washington was to begin on August 1, 1898. At the time of his election much publicity was given to the fact that he had succeeded John Hustin Finley in the title of youngest college president in America, lip. Finley had begun his seven year term as President of Knox College in 1892 at the early age of twenty-nine years. Mr, Graves
had begun his two-year terra as President of the University in 1896 while only twenty-
seven years old. After years of successful work Doctor Graves was elevated to the
premier educational position in the United States - President of the University of the State of New York and Commissioner of Education for that State - in 1921. By a singular coincidence he succeeded in that position the same President John Hustin Finley.
Economic conditions had changed materially when President Graves began his service
at the University on August 1, 1898. The long drawn-out depression of 1893 had suddenly
ended. The "treasure-ship" Portland had arrived in Seattle on July 17, 1897, bringing
a ton of Klondike gold from Alaska, "a stampede unequalled in history was on."
Students and professors become excited as did the people in all walks of life. "Hard times in the State of Washington vanished in a day. The good news was electrical. Orders were telegraphed for miners* supplies of every kind. People talked of nothing else, but in addition to hopeful talking they began active work, preparing to secure in
V * j
Another cause for excitement and change was President McKinley’s call on April 25,
1S98, for one hundred and twenty-five thousand men to serve in the Spanish-American War. Only one regiment of infantry was allotted to the State of Washington. In answer to instant clamor, Governor Rogers sought for the allottment of a second regiment, hut all in vain. He then selected Lieutenant John H. Wholley to serve as Colonel of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry, This took him from his work at the University.
Light students were able to join him because of their enlistment in the national Guards. Those students were Walter V. Cotchett, Edwin Fredlund, George H. Gaches, Garfield McGlinn, Ohauncey B. Rathbun , William W. Reinhart, Tames Willis Sayre, and Frank W. Smith. The University followed with interest all reports of battles in the Philippines.
President Graves plunged into his work with surprising energy and effectiveness.
He attended county institutes and other educational meetings throughout the State to arouse the people’s interest in their University. The institution was just emerging from a season of political and financial disturbances. He had no hand in preparing the Catalogue under which he did his first year’s work. It was published in the spring of 1898 while he was finishing his work as President of the University of Wyoming. That Catalogue giving the announcements for the academic year, 1898-1899, tells a sad story with its footnotes of changes in the faculty and the blank lines after courses for which instructors had not been obtained. Outlines were continued for the expected College of Engineering, the College of Mining and Metallurgy, and the College of Chemistry. This new announcement appeared in the statements of Student Associations:
"The Stevens Debating Club is a student’s organization for the improvement of its
members in the art of public speaking. The club is named in honor of Isaac Ingalls
Stevens, the first Governor of Washington Territory." Rebates had been part of the work in the American history class but the officers of that group had joined the troops going to the Philippines whereupon Charles McCann organized the new club and started it on a long and successful career.
President Graves made a practical transformation of the University of Washington in the first year of his administration. Vacant places on the faculty were filled. College units that had been vaguely outlined and hoped for were given solid foundations
and set to work, And the intellectual power of the institution was given new fields of activity.
 Ibid., 1895, pp. 469-470, 430, 575, 577-578.
 Ibid., 1895, pp. 107-109, 134, 193-194.
 David Starr Jordan, The Days of a Man, Vol. I., p. 224.
 Laws of Washington, 1899, pp. [sic]