The courses of study are arranged in two parts: School - Primary Department, Intermediate Department and Preparatory or Academic Course; and College - Classical Course of four years and Scientific Course of three years. The list of text hooks used is followed by a calendar of the sessions, rates of tuition and expense of boarding. The organization of the Military Department, in accordance with the charter of the University, is announced with the following officers: Captain, E. S. Osborne; First Lieutenant, George F. Whitworth, Jr.; Second Lieutenant, H. H. Lewis; First Sergeant, W. B. Webster.
One fine evidence of a purpose to serve the people is found in the announcement saying: "The Regents, feeling the importance of providing some means by which the resources of this Territory can be illustrated, have entrusted to the President of the Institution the gathering together of such objects as will be best adapted to furnish practical and beneficial knowledge, touching the natural productions either upon or beneath the surface of the soil; or as may tend to exhibit the Indian history of this country.”
This survey of the conditions confronting the institution is found on the last page of the catalogue: "Various reasons hitherto have operated to prevent the Institution from becoming what it is designed to be, most of which are incident to a new and sparsely settled country. The Territory is still in its infancy; society is only in its formative state; nothing as yet is really permanent; the unsettled state of things, and the restlessness of the people have an unfavorable influence, adverse to a thorough and systematic course of study; our common school is in so imperfect a condition, that the district schools do not to any extent become feeders for a College. While these causes operate, the conversion of the University to a College proper must be slow and gradual. From the necessity of the case, it must yet provide instruction in the lower branches of study, until such time as our district schools shall be thoroughly graded, and the Academy system engrafted thereon. To build up the University, schools must grow up here on the ground. The Institution will aim to supply as far as possible the present needs, by endeavoring to do its work thoroughly, and so to train up the youth who attend it, that they shall become true men and women."
While the first catalogue was being prepared, the Board of Regents published two announcements in 1S74 as did President Whitworth in 1875. Mr. Bagley depended on his memory and his collection of letters. The Record of the Board of Regents shows only blank pages between the meetings of February 8, 1875 and January 29, 1878. The secretary failed to transcribe his penciled notes. It is known that the institution was closed again for lack of funds in the autumn of 1876 and that Miss May W. Thayer again gathered together some of the students for instruction. The first diploma was granted on June 30, 1876, to Clara A. McCarty (Mrs. John H. Wilt) who had transferred to the new course and received the Bachelor of Science degree.
Some constructive work for the University was accomplished by the Legislature in its session of 1875. On October 26 a significant act was approved relating to University lands. After all the official investigations, accusations and approvals, here comes a law declaring that all deeds of such lands "executed in the name of Daniel Bagley, president of the board of university commissioners, instead of being executed in the name of the Territory of Washington, shall be deemed,(?) taken and held good and valid deeds in law." On November 12, two other acts were approved. One was very brief declaring three Regents to be a quorum and authorizing the President and Secretary to transact necessary business when the Board was not in session. The other law provided for certain necessary repairs on the University buildings, not to exceed $1500, to be paid by the Territorial Treasurer "out of any funds in the treasury not otherwise appropriated". This is the first case of appropriating money from the Territorial Treasury for the benefit of the University. The Legislature also adopted a joint resolution on October 9 providing for a committee to visit "the Insane Asylum, Penitentiary and University." An effort to employ a mechanic to visit the University failed.
In the fall of 1875, Henry L. Yesler, prominent citizen of Seattle, conceived the idea of helping the University through a lottery. He would raffle his sawmill and adjacent property including a brewery and from the proceeds he would donate to the University from $25,000 to $50,000. He got an enabling act through the Legislature.
Such a clamor was raised against the idea of connecting the University with a lottery that he changed the beneficiary to a projected road through the Cascade Range. The plan failed as the courts decided that the proposed lottery was illegal.
An epoch was reached in the early history of the University of Washington in the year 1877. That was the year that A. J. Anderson arrived to become the new President. The courses and departments as he found them were solidified and expanded. The foundations were completed and there were to be no more closings of the institution for lack of funds. He issued the second catalogue which really became the first one in the unbroken series of annual catalogues. The student body increased in number and effectiveness. The Legislature made its first appropriation for the educational work of the Territorial University. Thus 1877 must be remembered as one of the most important years in this history.
Alexander Jay Anderson was born at Grey Abbe, Ireland, on November 6, 1832. His parents, Joseph and Jane (McKay) Anderson, of Scotch ancestry, migrated to America when their son was but fifteen months old. The father became a fisherman on the St. Lawrence River. It was necessary for the boy to depend largely upon his own industry to obtain an education. He was graduated from Knox College in 1856 and became a teacher in secondary and academic schools in Illinois and Kentucky. In 1869 he moved to Oregon to accept the principalship of Tualatin Academy of Pacific University, being promoted in 1872 to the professorship of Pedagogy and Mathematics. After two years he moved to Portland, serving successively as Principal of Central School and of Portland’s only High School. From that work he came to the Territorial University of Washington. The year after graduating from Knox College, he had been married at Morris, Illinois, to Miss Louise M. Phelps. She was a wonderful wife, mother, and colleague throughout her husband’s active career.
The Anderson family arrived in Seattle during the summer of 1877. The University had been closed for more than a year. There were hopes that the Legislature in its approaching winter session would do something to put the institution on a more firm financial basis. In September, Professor Anderson opened a private school in the University building. His method was energetic and constructive. He had had experience in building up other crippled schools.
Hope in the Legislature proved not to be misplaced. On November 9, 1877, the Governor approved what is known as the University Free Scholarships Law. It appropriated $1500 for each of the two years 1878 and 1879. The money was to pay the tuition of forty-five students at the rate of thirty-three and a third dollars per year. One student was to be selected by each Representative, Councilman, and District Judge and three should be selected by the Governor. Districts were to govern so that every part of the Territory would be included. Careful provision was made for the certification of the appointments and it was decreed that such moneys "are only appropriated for the payment of the salaries of professors and tutors." That the new policy was deemed permanent is manifest by the provision for appointing the free scholars including the phrase "and every two years thereafter." Another evidence of public sustenance was the briefer law approved on the same day providing payment for Regents in attending meetings of the Board. The free scholarship bill had been introduced by Representative John McReavy of Pierce and Mason Counties and the other bill by Representative Joseph Foster of King County, the old friend of University legislation. Mr. McReavy's bill was cast aside. A bill introduced by Councilman C. H. Hanford of King County was substituted for it and subsequently enacted. An adverse flurry in that friendly session occurred on October 17 when Representative Amassa Miller introduced House Bill 62, "An act to sell the Territorial University." The Council was informed that such a bill had been introduced but it did not pass in either house. That Legislature adjourned on November 9, 1877. Its good work for the University soon became known throughout the Territory.
The method of selecting Regents was changed. Up to and including 1875 they were selected in the Legislature by enactment of law or by election in joint session. On November 9, 1877, last day of the session, Governor Elisha P. Ferry sent to the Council a long list of nominations for Territorial officers including these five Regents; C. H. Larrabee, A. H. Steele, G. V. Calhoun, D. Bagley, and John Rea.
The appointments were confirmed by the Council. That method of selection has continued. Evidently Mr. Rea did not qualify as within a year the name of Allen Weir appears as the fifth Regent.
The Regents were waiting to reopen permanently the Territorial University of Washington. Their first meeting was held on January 29, 1878. A. J. Anderson was promptly elected Secretary of the Board and from that time on there are no blank pages in the Record. At the second meeting, February 16, 1868, there was spread upon the minutes a long and legally phrased contract with President Anderson. It mentions, "in modification of the contract heretofore made." It is thus evident that his private school was a part of his agreement awaiting permanence after the Legislature had acted.
That second Catalogue was a tiny one of twelve pages, each page being only three by four and five-eighths inches in size. It is called "Annual Announcement, June, 1878." The Faculty as announced comprised five instructors, three of whom were members of the Aiderscn family as follows: "A. J. Anderson, A.M., President, Psychology and Mathematics; Mrs. L. P. Anderson, French and Elocution; C. M. Anderson, Book-Keeping and Military Tactics; A. T. Burwell, A.B., Greek, Latin and English; Mrs. Emma Guttenburg, German."
There are fifty-nine young women and sixty-seven men or a total of one hundred and twenty-six listed as students. No indication is given of those who were enjoying the free scholarships provided by the Legislature, but the residences given show a wide distribution over the Territory. Two each were given as from California and Oregon.
The outline of three years work in the Classical Course gave much of Latin, Greek, mathematics, zoology, and physiology. One of the "Remarks" is as follows: "Its classical course is meant, in the present financial condition of the Institution, to be only a complete and thorough preparation for the best Eastern Colleges, but its growth is to keep pace with the finances of the Institution.” The Scientific Course likewise had three years, showing less Latin and Greek, with chemistry, botany, psychology, astronomy and United States Constitution, taking the place of the omitted classics. Two years of appropriate courses were mapped out for the Normal Course "designed to assist those intending to teach in the public schools."
Evidently not all of the forty-five free scholars were appointed for the first year. One of the brief remarks says the support of the University was: "First, §1000 by direct appropriation of the Legislature, being the payment of the tuition of thirty pupils appointed as directed by law; Second, §500 interest on endowment fund, and third from tuition of pay-pupils."
An unexplained incident is recorded in the minutes of the Regents at their meeting on August 14, 1878. President Anderson submitted his resignation. It was discussed but on motion of Col. C. H. Larrabee, seconded by Rev. Daniel Bagley, by unanimous vote, the Board declined to accept the resignation. President Anderson then proceeded with preparation of his second Catalogue.
The Faculty for the academic year of 1878-1879 was expanded. The same five were retained. Another son of President and Mrs. Anderson was added. Oliver P. Anderson was to teach "Plain and Ornamental Penmanship." Other additions were "Miss R. E. Scott, A.B., Latin and Greek; J. T. Martin, B.S., Physiology and Common English; C. B. Plummer, Elocution; Miss Minnie Sparling, Painting and Drawing; G. W. Ward, Vocal Music; Miss Jennie Hancock, Telegraphy."
The classical course was expanded to five years and the scientific course to four years. The normal course remained at two years. The commercial course was added with two years of work leading to a diploma. The summary of students indicated a total attendance of one hundred and fifty-five.
Among the advantages enumerated is this statement: "Seattle is accessible by daily lines of steamers." That was, of course, before the days of railroad transportation to Seattle. That catalogue comprised twelve pages but the size of the page had been increased to five and one-half by eight inches.
The Regents' records of this time indicate that they were occupied mostly with land problems and the adjustment of interest accounts of those who had borrowed University funds. In August, 1879, they arranged the details of digging a well to serve the boarding house.
The Legislature on November 6, 1879, adopted a memorial to President Rutherford B. Hayes asking him to detail an officer of the United States Army to serve the University as "professor of military instruction and higher mathematics." That was an interesting forward glance but it was some years before such assistance was obtained from the Territorial Government. On November 12, Governor Elisha P. Ferry sent to the Council his nominations of five men to become the new Board of Regents. The Council confirmed the appointments at once. The new Regents were Orange Jacobs, A. A. Denny, and H. G. Struve of King County; J. P. Judson, of Thurston County; and James Power, of Whatcom County.
On November 14, an act was approved continuing the provisions for free scholarships. The appropriation was $1000 far each of the two years to pay the tuition of thirty free scholars and §500 to purchase "philosophical instruments and books of reference." Since the first effort to secure forty-five such scholarships had failed, the number was here reduced to thirty. While the bill was being considered, or on November 7, an effort was made to pay the traveling expenses of the free scholars. That effort failed.
The new Board of Regents held their first meeting on January 20, 1880. It is evident that Arthur A. Denny had not accepted the appointment as Dr. G. A. Weed appeared in his place as a qualified new member of the Board. They elected as officers H. G. Struve, President; A. J. Anderson, Secretary; and Orange Jacobs, Treasurer. Their meetings during the year 1880 were devoted to consideration of land-fund accounts, (which comprised what was sometimes called the endowment), to the paying of current bills and the expenditure of the $500 appropriation for books and apparatus. At the meeting of January 20, 1880, it was ordered to pay $3.50 "on the bill of D. B. Ward for shoveling snow from the boarding house." That was a time of deep snow. Several of the early catalogues mention the fact that Mr. and Mrs. D. B. Ward were in charge of the boarding house. On March 6, President Anderson recommended the purchase of a list of reference books and he "was authorized to correspond with publishers and ask bids for furnishing said list of books to the University.” Four students were graduated and received diplomas in 1880 but there is no record of approval by the Regents. Their records are blank for 1876 when the first diploma was granted. That duty of the Regents would develop in later years. On September 13, 1880, the Regents took a forward step when they approved two expenditures of $15.00 each for such apparatus and books "as the Faculty shall select.”
The Catalogues for 1880 and 1881 show distinct progress within the institution. Additions to the Faculty included Professor Frank P. Gilman, natural history, physics and astronomy; Newton McCoy, Latin, Greek and English; Mrs. J. M. Flowers, French and German; W. H. Davis, telegraphy; Mrs. M. M. Curtis and E. Steinle, instrumental music; and Miss M. L. Hansee, English, history and Latin. President Anderson increased his teaching load as developments required until he was listed for psychology, pedagogics, literature and mathematics. Mrs. Anderson was also a burden bearer. 8he was preceptress for the girls who boarded at the President’s home. During the four years she conducted classes as they developed in French, elocution, botany, logic, rhetoric, botany, zoology and physiology. Her program was different each year. Four of the five Anderson sons rendered service on the Faculty. Charles M. Anderson was principal of the commercial department and Oliver P. Anderson taught penmanship. They left the Faculty in 1881 and two other of the sons began work. Louis F. Anderson began teaching Latin and Greek in his senior year, and A. J. Anderson, Jr., taught penmanship while still in his junior year. That family cooperation was of distinct advantage during those lean financial years.
The efforts of President Anderson and the Board of Regents in the purchase of apparatus and books resulted in this announcement in the Catalogue of 1881: "A judicious expenditure of the $500 appropriated by the Territorial Legislature of 1879 for apparatus and reference books has borne excellent fruit in the classes in Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Botany, Mineralogy, Zoology and other branches.”
The cabinet and the library now needed each a separate room. Louis F. Anderson, besides being a senior in the classical course and a teacher of Latin and Greek, had taken on the duties of Librarian. The Catalogue announced: "Including the Seattle City Library, which has been given in charge to the University, students have access to 1800 bound volumes and 800 pamphlets. The Librarian, Mr. L. F. Anderson, will always be ready to gratefully acknowledge the receipt of any good book or pamphlet donated to the University Library." A similar bid was made for prepared specimens in natural science. Such beginnings seem feeble and rudimentary when compared with the modern Library,
Museum and numerous laboratories on the University of Washington Campus.
The catalogue of 1881 makes another announcement significant as to what would develop in the future. It is undoubtedly the initial step toward a Law School. The announcement is as follows: "The course of Law Lectures begun during the past year by Ex-Delegate Orange Jacobs on United States constitution, Ex-Governor E. P. Ferry on Domestic Relations, Judge J. R. Lewis on Contracts and Hon. W. H. White on U. S. Constitution, is to become a permanent feature of the University, and other eminent members of the legal fraternity of the Territory will also take a part in it."
Three literary societies are recorded as doing satisfactory work within the institution: the Gnothautii, for men, organized on February 20, 1878; the Euphronean, for women, organized on April 22, 1879; and the Erosophic, for men, organized on April 22, 1881.
The Board of Regents at the meeting of May 30, 1881, voted unanimously to grant diplomas to all who completed courses of study and to establish the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. Those graduating were few but there have been some such graduates for each Commencement Day following 1880. At this same meeting a Board of Visitors was appointed consisting of "Hon. J. R. Lewis, Hon. Elwood Evans and Rev. Geo. R. Bird."
The Legislators in the session of 1881 were unwilling to grant financial aid by the free scholarship plan as in the two previous sessions. They thought the institution should depend upon its "endowment". The only University law enacted was a brief one approved on December 1, 1881, authorizing the Board of Regents to locate all remaining portions of the land grant and the Territory was to pay the expenses of such locating not to exceed one hundred and fifty dollars. The Council Journal of that session was never printed hut the House Journal was published and bears evidence that both houses had passed bills to renew the free scholarship appropriations. These were handed back and forth with amendments and neither one reached final concurrent enactment. It may be that the Legislators thought they might pass the responsibility on to Mr. Henry Villard who had helped to save the University of Oregon by a gift of $7,000 in 1876. Editor Kirk C. Ward of the Seattle Daily Chronicle suspected this evasion and uttered bitter criticism of the Legislature for its opposition to the University. This was while the Legislature was still in session and a week before its adjournment he published a letter from Mr. Villard offering his help if the Legislature failed. That the Legislature knew of Mr. Villard’s helpfulness to the Northwest is shown by a joint resolution on October 4, 1881, inviting him and “parties accompanying” to visit the capitol as "a fit opportunity to present the claims of the respective sections for the investment of capital.” It is only a surmise that this may have caused the subsequent debates and final failure to grant the appropriation.
Governor William A. Newell reappointed three members of the Board of Regents - H. G. Struve, G. A. Weed and Orange Jacobs - but instead of J. P. Judson and James Power, he selected Arthur A. Denny of Seattle and B. L. Sharpstein of Walla Walla. At their first meeting, on January 28, 1882, they became aware of Hr. Villard’s plan to save the University from closing its doors on account of the Legislature’s refusal to support it. President Anderson, still serving as Secretary, presented to the Board a letter he had received from Mr. Villard, dated at 83 Broadway, New York, January 9, 1882. Fortunately, that letter was entered in the Regents’ Records where it is still available.
Henry Villard’s willingness to help and his capacity for constructive work were well known. His career as an American was a fascinating one. Bom in Spire, Bavaria, on April 11, 1835, he was educated in the Universities of Munich and Wurzburg. On moving to America in 1853, he changed his name from Gustavus Hilgard to Henry Villard. The varied nature of his work became at once apparent. He studied law and soon moved to Chicago where he began newspaper work. He went to the newly discovered gold region of Colorado in 1859, where his newspaper correspondence developed into the book, The Pike’s Peak Gold Region, (1860). He gathered and published in the New York Herald statistics intended to influence the location of a Pacific railroad route. During the Civil War he was an army correspondent. On January 5, 1866, he married Fanny, daughter of William Lloyd Garrison. From 1868 to 1870 he served as Secretary of the American Social Science Association. Visiting Germany for his health, he was drawn into negotiations with German bond-holders and this resulted in 1874 in his reorganization and development of transportation enterprises in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon’s natural resources and promise of growth impressed him most favorably. Then he heard that the newly organized University of Oregon was about to lose its first main building, Deady Hall, because of unpaid bills, he telegraphed that personal check for $7,000 and saved the day. Small wonder that the institution named its next large building Villard Hall! He made subsequent donations totaling $61,010.
President Anderson was teaching in an Oregon college when Deady Hall was saved in 1876. When, in 1881, he found the Territorial University of Washington facing disaster, it was natural that he should hope for help from Mr. Villard. The Legislature was being criticized in the newspapers for its refusal of support. Mr. Villard’s first letter, mentioned above, as written to President Anderson, began: "I presume I am indebted to you for the transmission of various printed documents relating to your institution which I have read with much interest." He was ready to assist but thought they should wait until the Legislature had adjourned as the appropriation needed might still be made. It has been shown that this caution was not respected. His letter was published. Under these conditions President Anderson’s negotiations must have been highly diplomatic and Mr. Villard’s desire to help must have been thoroughly sincere.
It was surely with a feeling of triumph that President Anderson submitted to the Board of Regents that letter in which Mr. Villard agreed to supply the funds refused by the Legislature. He asked for a statement of how much would be needed to sustain the institution for the two years until the Legislature would meet again and ended his letter with this sentence: "In the meantime I have given directions to our Manager at Portland to send you from my private account one thousand dollars that you may he able to meet your immediate necessities."
The Regents were profoundly impressed by the letter. They asked President Anderson to comply with the request for further information and appointed a committee to frame proper resolutions of gratitude. HThe resolutions were adopted at the meeting of February 4, 1882, and during that same month Mr. Villard wrote that he would complete the $4000 needed for those two years by sending $1000 every six months. This brief letter was recorded by the Regents at their meeting meeting of March 11, 1882. No further resolutions are recorded, but the Seattle Daily Chronicle of May 25, 1882, when publishing an account of the University’s Commencement Day exercises, added this paragraph:
“Hon. H. G. Struve, President of the Board of Regents, made a statement as to the conditions of the institution and, in the course of his remarks, paid a glowing tribute to the liberality of Mr. Villard in generously aiding the University.”
Just before that Commencement Day, President Anderson surprised the friends of the University by tendering his resignation. At their meeting on June 5, 1882, the Regents adopted the following resolution:
"Resolved by the Board of Regents of the University of Washington Territory: that we deeply regret the necessity that compels Prof. A. J. Anderson’s resignation of the Presidency thereof - that we gratefully acknowledge that the University has enjoyed a degree of prosperity and efficiency under his administration not enjoyed before; and in parting with him we cheerfully recommend him as an accomplished and thorough teacher, and a Gentleman of fine executive ability in the management of an institution of learning.” It should be added that Professor Anderson soon thereafter entered upon a successful experience as President of Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington. Another beautiful gesture of farewell was thus recorded by the Regents at the meeting of June 24, 1882: "Resolved that the degree of Master of Science be conferred on Mrs. L. P. Anderson in recognition of her eminent attainments in botany and Zoology and her unselfish work in securing to the University a valuable cabinet of specimens in Natural History. ”
The presidency was offered to Professor Thomas Condon of the State University of Oregon but it was declined and on June 26, 1882, Leonard J. Powell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon, was requested to submit his name as a candidate for the position. This resulted in a formal proffer of the position on July 11, and six days later Professor Powell was present at the Regents’ meeting when the contract was completed. It was then voted that the school year should begin on September 20, 1882.
On October 2, President Powell was elected to serve as Secretary of the Board of Regents and also as Librarian of the University.
The last catalogue issued in the administration of President Anderson was for the academic year of 1881-1882 but was issued so late that it contained the President’s resignation and the Regents’ resolution adopted on June 5, 1882. It shows the substantial educational foundations attained and a student body of 139. There are listed seventeen who had received degrees or diplomas as graduated from 1876 to, and including, 1882. The catalogue for 1882-1883 dropped to smaller pages but was filled with compact information about the first year in the administration of President Powell. The summary of students showed a total of 237, but 53 of these were shown as "primaries in training school." President Powell was listed also as Professor of Mental and Moral Sciences. Among other members of the new faculty was Professor Orson Bennett Johnson, obtained from the Oregon Cabinet of Natural History. He was listed as Professor of Zoology, Geology, Botany and Mineralogy. When President Eliot of Harvard was introduced to him and asked what chair he occupied, Professor Johnson told him, whereupon President Eliot made his famous reply: "Oh, you do not occupy a chair, you occupy a settee." Professor Johnson impressed himself so indelibly upon his students through long years of service that a beautiful building on the new campus has been named in his honor. Many pioneer students will recall the truth of the reference to him in that little Catalogue of 1882-1883: "He not infrequently takes his entire classes upon excursions into the woods or along the shores of the Sound to study nature where nature is, and
to instruct them in the art of making collections and preparing specimens." Mr. and Mrs. Dillis B. Ward relinquished the management of the University Boarding Hall and their places were taken by Professor and Mrs. J. M. Ripley.
The University Regents, knowing that "last spike" ceremonies were contemplated by Henry Villard as President of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, took occasion as early as April 13 to appoint President H. G. Struve of the Board and President Powell a special committee to invite Mr. Villard and his guests to visit the University when they reached Seattle. Those "last spike" ceremonies were held at Missoula, Montana, on September 8, 1883, and four days later the participants reached Seattle. In the meantime the city’s extensive preparations included a pavilion on the campus for the occasion’s public exercises. It was a great day for the University. Speeches were made there by Mr. Villard, Carl Schurz, Carter Harrison of Chicago and others of the visitors but all insisted that the greatest speech of all was the address of welcome made by a student, Nellie G. Powell, daughter of President Powell. It was another and most appropriate occasion to thank Mr. Villard for helping the University. Half a century afterwards, on March 9, 1934, Mr. Villard’s son, Oswald Garrison Villard visited the University of Washington. He had been with his father’s family at those ceremonies in 1883 and the first question he asked was: "What can you tell me of Nellie Powell?" The answer was that she had passed away after having reared a fine family as the wife of Daniel M. Drumheller of Spokane. That visit by Oswald Garrison Villard in 1934 aroused an interest in his father’s saving the pioneer Universities of Oregon and Washington in 1883 and caused a search for the old records. These were then published in Old Oregon (Eugene) for February, 1934, and the Washington Historical Quarterly for April 1934.
President Powell’s administration experienced no event comparable to that “last-spike” ceremony of the Northern Pacific Railroad. It was a sort of national tie-up.
In less than a month, the Ninth Biennial Session of the Territorial Legislature convened on October 1, 1883. Governor William Augustus Newell in his message, delivered before the joint session on October 3, made a strong appeal for public aid of the University, saying: "Up to the last session of the Legislature it was the invariable practice to give substantial aid." He claimed that the lands granted by Congress and the ten acres donated in the center of Seattle would in time support the institution, but added: “I recommend that the appropriation sought be allowed.”
That advice was promptly followed. As early as October 31 there was approved an act appropriating §3000 each for the years 1884 and 1885 and $300 each for the purchase of books and apparatus. This seems generous as Mr. Villard had been told that §4000 was sufficient for the previous two-year period. The idea of free scholarships persisted. On November 23, an act was approved providing for the appointment of thirty-six free scholarships, one by each member of the Legislative Assembly. The keeping of careful records of each appointee was specified in the law. It should also be recorded that the extensive law approved on November 28, to "Amend the Common School Law of the Territory of Washington" included a provision that the Superintendent of Public Instruction should report biennially “on the condition of the territorial university.” This is probably the first legal recognition of the University as a part of the common school system. Governor Newell made no change in the membership of the Board of Regents.
The meetings of the Board were frequently occupied with consideration of business connected with the Congressional land grant and in 1884 a futile effort was made by D. B. Ward, E. Bryan and Thomas T. Jordan to lease parts of the ten-acre campus on which to erect dwellings. The Regents also approved regularly those who were entitled to diplomas and degrees after having completed their courses of study.
President Powell submitted a detailed report to the Board of Regents on November 1, 1884, showing how the University was progressing under the new aid granted by the Legislature. Students were recorded from all parts of the Territory as a result of the free scholarships law. The most significant change in the faculty was the resignation of Mattie L. Hansee, Ancient Languages, and the engagement of Professor George 0. Curme for Ancient and Modern Languages. After two years in the University of Washington, Professor Curme had unusual success as Professor of German for ten years at Cornell and since 1896 at Northwestern University. The Catalogue for 1884-1885 shows President Powell as giving instruction in mathematics and astronomy while Rev. D. J. Pierce was added to give his former work as Professor of the Intellectual and Moral Sciences.
On Commencement Day, 1885, the largest class in the history of the institution up to that time received diplomas and degrees. President Powell submitted to the Board of Regents for approval the names of six for the Bachelor of Science degree and four for the Normal Diploma. The University was proud of its class of ten. At the same time the University conferred its first Master of Arts degree, Louis F. Anderson and its first honorary degree, Doctor of Laws, Judge Orange Jacobs.
On September 29, 1885, the Board of Regents took initial steps toward organizing Schools of Law Medicine. Doctors G. A. Weed, Thomas T. Minor and Rufus Willard were appointed a committee "to consult with other regular physicians of this city and report to this board a plan of organization for the department of medicine." Similar action was taken for the Law School with H. G. Struve, Orange Jacobs and Roger S. Greene as the committee. Each committee prepared a full report of proposed courses of study, members of faculties and other details. The reports were adopted by the Board of Regents on October 13, 1885, and to that extent the two new schools were parts of the University. The faculty of the Law School was to include Roger S. Greene, Elisha P. Ferry, Orange Jacobs, Elwood Evans, Benjamin F. Dennison, Thomas Burke, J. C. Haines, John B. Allen and Junius Rochester. The faculty of the School of Medicine included the following physicians and surgeons: Thomas T. Minor, Rufus Willard, Edward L. Smith, John Baker, Gideon A. Weed, C. H. Merrick, L. R. Dawson, John W. Waughop, John G. Sundberg and J. T. M. Smart. Neither of the new schools functioned regularly although Junius Rochester as stated Instructor gave some work in law for a number of years. The official minutes of the Regents’ adoption of the Law School plan show a penciled note, "Repealed July 28, 1894” 
 Laws of Washington, 1875, pp. 103-104, 230-232 and 328.
 House Journal, 1875, p. 100.
 Victor J. Farrar, "History of the University" in the Washington Alumnus for November, 1921.
 Ibid., for January, 1922; Clarence B. Bagley’s History of Seattle, Vol. I., p. 143; H. K. Hines’ History of Washington, p. 591; Post-Intelligencer, March 16, 1903; and manuscript letter from Prof. Louis F. Anderson, February 20, 1932.
 Laws of Washington, 1877, pp. 241-243, and 331.
 House Journal, 1877, pp. 89, 226, 285; and Council Journal, 1877, pp. 73, 159.
 Council Journal, 1877, pp. 244-245.
 Record of the Regents, 1862-1890, p. 90.
 Council Journal, 1879, pp. 175, 177.
 Laws of Washington, 1879, pp. 138-139.
 Council Journal, 1879, p. 129.
 Record of the Regents, 1862-1890, p. 111.
 Ibid., p. 118.
 Laws of Washington, 1881, p. 23.
 Seattle Daily Chronicle, November 11 and 23, December 1, 1881.
 Laws of Washington, 1881, p. 257.
 Records of the Regents, 1862-1890, p. 135.
 Frederic James Grant, History of Seattle, pp. 168-172; Edmond s. Meany, History of Washington, pp. 271-274.
 House Journal, 1883, pp. 23-24.
 Laws of Washington, 1883, pp. 105-106.
 Ibid., pp. 68-69.
 Ibid., p. 4.
 Records of the Regents, 1862-1890, pp. 148-149.
 Ibid., p. 167.