Anagnost, Ann. 1997a. “Children and National Transcendence in China.” In Constructing China: The Interaction of Culture and Economics, edited by Kenneth G. Lieberthal, Shuen-fu Lin, and Ernest P. Young. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 195–222.
———. 1997b. National Past-Times: Narrative, Representation, and Power in Modern China. Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press.
———. 2004. “The Corporeal Politics of Quality (Suzhi).” Public Culture 16 (2): 189–208.
Anonymous. 2006. “Erlinglingliu nian Nujiang zhou laodong shuchu shishi fang’an: Taolun gao” (2006 Nujiang Prefecture labor export implementation scheme: Draft discussion paper). (This document was provided to the author by the Gongshan County Labor Bureau.)
Bakken, Børge. 2000. The Exemplary Society: Human Improvement, Social Control, and the Dangers of Modernity in China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barabantseva, Elena. 2008. “From the Language of Class to the Rhetoric of Development: Discourses of ‘Nationality’ and ‘Ethnicity’ in China.” Journal of Contemporary China 17 (56): 565–89.
Berman, Marshall. 1982. All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Blum, Susan D. 2001. Portraits of Primitives. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2008. Wild China.
Brown, Philip H., and Kevin Xu. 2010. “Hydropower Development and Resettlement Policy on China’s Nu River.” Journal of Contemporary China 19 (66): 777–97.
Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge (CBIK). 2006. Consultations on Agro-Biodiversity Loss and Conservation in the Dulongjiang Valley, Yunnan, China. Kunming: Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge. (This report was submitted to the Convention on Biodiversity Office of the State Environment Protection Agency in August 2006. Report provided to author by Andreas Wilkes.)
Central Government of the People’s Republic of China. 2004. Constitution. http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/05/content_20813.htm. Accessed October 11, 2008.
Chan, Christina Y., and Stevan Harrell. 2009. “School Consolidation in Rural Sichuan: Quality Versus Equality.” In Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education, edited by Minglang Zhou and Ann Maxwell Hill. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 143–64.
Cheng Li. 1996. “Surplus Rural Laborers and Internal Migration in China: Current Status and Future Prospects.” Asian Survey 36 (11): 1122–45.
Chen Shaojuan, ed. 2005. Pinde yu shenghuo (Moral character and life). Beijing: Renmin Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Chen Xiang. 2006. “Guojia qidong ‘Nujiang wenti’ yanjiu” (The nation kick-starts an investigation of the “Nujiang issue”). Zhongguo minzu bao (China nationality news). May 16. http://iea.cass.cn/jianbao/F002572.doc. Accessed November 27, 2008.
Chen Zhili. 2006. “Chen Zhili: Li tui Nongcun Yiwu Jiaoyu Jingfei Baozhang Jizhi gaige” (Chen Zhili strongly advances the Rural Compulsory Education Assured Funding Mechanism reform). Zhongguo jiaoyu bao (China education news). November 30. www.edu.cn/edu_liter_5272/20061130/t20061130_207446.shtml. Accessed November 15, 2007.
China.com. 2007. “Quyu jingji” (Regional economy). August 19. www.china.com.cn/aboutchina/txt/2007-08/19/content_8709882.htm. Accessed December 7, 2007.
China Daily.2010a. “Minister Prepares to Solve Ethnic Challenges.” November 18. www.china.org.cn/china/2010-11/18/content_21368898.htm. Accessed July 30, 2010.
———. 2010b. “Ethnic Minorities Remain Besieged by Poverty.” December 23. www.china.org.cn/china/2010-12/23/content_21599493.htm. Accessed January 7, 2010.
———. 2011. “Nujiang Hydro Project Back on Agenda.” February 1. www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-02/01/content_11952362.htm. Accessed May 14, 2011.
China Nujiang Gorge Network. 2011. “Gongshan gaikuang” (Gongshan overview). www.nujiang.cn/zhouqing/xianxiang/gsx/201002/t20100203_1498.html. Accessed April 24, 2011.
Cleverley, John. 1991. The Schooling of China: Tradition and Modernity in Chinese Education. North Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin. Originally published 1985.
Cressey, George Babcock. 1934. China’s Geographic Foundations: A Survey of the Land and Its People. New York and London: McGraw-Hill.
Daniels, Christian. 1994. “Environmental Degradation, Forest Protection and Ethno-History in Yunnan (1): The Uprising by Swidden Agriculturalists in 1821.” Chinese Environmental History Newsletter 1 (2): n.p.
Davies, Gloria. 2007. Worrying about China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press.
Davies, Henry Rodolph. 2010. Yun-Nan: The Link between India and the Yangtze. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Originally published 1909.
Dean, Mitchell. 1999. Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London, Thousand Oaks, CA, and New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Digital Countryside—Building the New Countryside Information Network. 2008. “Gongshan xian Tui Geng Huan Lin Gongcheng wancheng qingkuang” (The completion of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in Gongshan County). www.ynszxc.gov.cn/szxc/CountyModel/ShowDocument.aspx?Did=1525&DepartmentId=1525&id=2523373. Accessed May 29, 2011.
Dikötter, Frank. 1992. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. London: Hurst & Company.
———. 2010. Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–1962. New York: Walker & Co.
Dilger, Bernhard. 1984. “The Education of Minorities.” Comparative Education 20 (1): 155–64.
Dirlik, Arif. 2006. “Global Modernity, Spatial Reconfigurations, and Global Health: Perspectives from the People’s Republic of China.” boundary 2 33 (1): 99–122.
Economist. 2000. “Asia: Go West, Young Han.” 357 (8202): 29–30.
Economist (online). 2011. “Comparing Chinese Provinces with Countries.” www.economist.com/content/chinese_equivalents. Accessed April 23, 2011.
Education, Science and Culture Office of the Yunnan Provincial Finance Department/Finance Planning Office of the Yunnan Provincial Education Department. 2007. Yunnan sheng: Nongcun Yiwu Jiaoyu Jingfei Baozhang Jizhi gaige cailiao huibian (Yunnan Province: Rural Compulsory Education Assured Funding Mechanism reform compilation). Kunming: Yunnan sheng Caizheng Ting Jiao Ke Wen Chu/Yunnan sheng Jiaoyu Ting Ji Cai Chu.
Elvin, Mark. 2004. The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Escobar, Arturo. 1984–85. “Discourse and Power in Development: Michel Foucault and the Relevance of His Work to the Third World.” Alternatives X (Winter 1984–85): 377–400.
———. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Esteva, Gustavo. 1992. “Development.” In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, edited by Wolfgang Sachs. London and New Jersey: Zen Books, 6–25.
Everett, Margaret. 1997. “The Ghost in the Machine: Agency in ‘Poststructural’ Critiques of Development.” Anthropological Quarterly 70 (3): 137–51.
Fei Hsiao-Tung and Chang Chih-I. 1949. Earthbound China: A Study of Rural Economy in Yunnan. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Originally published 1948.
Ferguson, James. 2003. The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development,” Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Originally published 1990.
Fitzgerald, C. P. 1941. The Tower of Five Glories: A Study of the Min Chia of Ta Li, Yunnan. London: Cresset Press.
Foreign Affairs Office of the People’s Government of the Nujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture. 2006. “Nujiang Lisuzu zizhizhou jianjie” (A brief introduction to the Nujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture). www.yfao.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=211. Accessed November 27, 2008.
Forrest, George. 1908. “Journey on Upper Salwin, October–December, 1905.” Geographical Journal 32 (3): 239–66.
Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality. Vol. I: An Introduction. New York: Pantheon Books.
———. 1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 87–104.
Gaetano, Arianne M. 2004. “Filial Daughters, Modern Women: Migrant Domestic Workers in Post-Mao Beijing.” In On the Move: Women in Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China, edited by Arianne M. Gaetano and Tamara Jacka. New York: Columbia University Press, 41–79.
Gaetano, Arianne M., and Tamara Jacka, eds. 2004. On the Move: Women in Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gao Yingxin. 2003. Shandi nonggeng minzu shengtai jingji yanjiu (Study on eco-economy of mountainous ethnic groups). Kunming: Yunnan Keji Chubanshe.
Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Giddens, Anthony, and Christopher Pierson. 1998. Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Giersch, C. Pat. 2001. “‘A Motley Throng’: Social Change on Southwest China’s Early Modern Frontier, 1700–1880.” Journal of Asian Studies 60 (1): 67–94.
———. 2006. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China’s Yunnan Frontier. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press.
Gillogly, Kathleen A. 2006. “Transformations of Lisu Social Structure under Opium Control and Watershed Conservation in Northern Thailand.” PhD diss., University of Michigan. http://manao.manoa.hawaii.edu/38/1/gillogly_dissertation.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2009.
Gladney, Dru C. 1998. Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
———. 2004. Dislocating China: Reflections on Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Glover, Denise M., Stevan Harrell, Charles F. McKhann, and Margaret Byrne Swain, eds. 2011. Explorers and Scientists in China’s Borderlands, 1880–1950. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Gongshan Agricultural Bureau. 2009. “Gongshan xian nongmin gong waichu wugong qingkuang” (The situation regarding Gongshan County’s migrant workers). www.ynf.gov.cn/zmb/newsview.aspx?id=854725. Accessed August 30, 2011.
Gongshan Dulongzu Nuzu zizhixian zhi (Annals of the Gongshan Dulong and Nu Nationalities Autonomous County). 2006. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
Gongshan Education Bureau (GEB). 2006. “Lijing wushi nian jianxin zhujiu wushi nian huihuang” (Fifty years of hard work sets the foundation for fifty more brilliant years). Gongshan: Gongshan Jiaoyu Bu.
Gongshan Government Office/Gongshan Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2005 nian Gongshan Dulongzu Nuzu zizhixian: Lingdao ganbu jingji gongzuo shouce (2005 Gongshan Dulong and Nu Nationalities Autonomous County: Economic work handbook for leaders and officials). Gongshan: Gongshan Renmin Zhengfu Bangongshi/Gongshan Tongji Ju.
Gongshan News. 2007. Gongshan dianshi tai (Gongshan television station). Broadcast January 2007.
Gongshan Xian gongmin wenming shouce (Gongshan County Citizens’ Civilized Handbook). 2006.
Goodman, David S. G. 2004. “The Campaign to ‘Open Up the West’: National, Provincial-Level and Local Perspectives.” China Quarterly 178: 317–34.
———, ed. 2008. The New Rich in China: Future Rulers, Present Lives. London and New York: Routledge.
Greenhalgh, Susan, and Edwin A. Winckler. 2005. Governing China’s Population: From Leninist to Neoliberal Biopolitics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gros, Stéphane. 1996. “Terres de Confins, Terres de Colonisation. Essai sur les Marches Sino-Tibétaines du Yunnan à Travers L’implantation de la Mission du Tibet” (Lands at the fringes, lands of colonization. Essay on the Sino-Tibetan borderlands of Yunnan through the history of the establishment of the Tibet Mission). Péninsule 33 (2): 147–211.
———. 2001. “Ritual and Politics: Missionary Encounters with Local Culture in Northwest Yunnan.” Conference paper presented at Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, Chicago, March 22–25. http://victoria.linguistlist.org/~lapolla/rda/acpapers.dir/AASpaper.pdf. Accessed March 25, 2012. Cited with permission.
Gupta, Akhil. 1995. “Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics, and the Imagined State.” American Ethnologist 22 (2): 375–402.
Hansen, Mette Halskov. 1999. Lessons in Being Chinese: Minority Education and Ethnic Identity in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Harkness, James. 1998. “Recent Trends in Forestry and Conservation of Biodiversity in China.” China Quarterly 156: 911–34.
Harrell, Stevan. 1995. “Introduction: Civilizing Projects and the Reaction to Them.” In Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers, edited by Stevan Harrell. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 3–36.
———. 2001. Ways of Being Ethnic in Southwest China. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
———. 2007. “L’état, C’est Nous, or We Have Met the Oppressor and He Is Us: The Predicament of Minority Cadres in the PRC.” In The Chinese State at the Borders, edited by Diana Lary. Toronto: University of British Columbia Press, 221–39.
———. 2001. “Nationalities Conflict and Ethnicity in the People’s Republic of China, with Special Reference to the Yi in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture.” In Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China, edited by Stevan Harrell. Berkeley: University of California Press, 214–37.
———. 2007. Doing Business in Rural China: Liangshan’s New Ethnic Entrepreneurs. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
He Daguang. 2006. “Zhonggong Nujiang zhou wei guanyu zhiding Nujiang zhou Guomin Jingji he Shehui Fazhan di Shiyi ge Wu Nian Guihua de jianyi” (The CCP Committee of Nujiang Prefecture sets down Nujiang Prefecture’s 11th Five Year Plan for Economic and Social Development). Nujiang bao (Nujiang news). January 24. www.nj.yn.gov.cn/nj/72905321797910528/20060124/16084_1.html. Accessed November 24, 2008.
Henck, Amanda C. 2010. “Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Erosion in Western China and Tibet.” PhD diss., University of Washington. http://earthweb.ess.washington.edu/ess-ew/about/sa-ew/gs-phd-dissert/yr.2010/henck_amanda/henck_amanda_phd-2010.pdf. Accessed May 14, 2011.
Herman, John E. 1997. “Empire in the Southwest: Early Qing Reforms to the Native Chieftain System.” Journal of Asian Studies 56 (1): 47–74.
———. 2006. “The Cant of Conquest: Tusi Offices and China’s Political Incorporation of the Southwest Frontier.” In Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China, edited by Pamela Kyle Crossley, Helen F. Siu, and Donald S. Sutton. Berkeley: University of California Press, 135–68.
He Shizhong. 2007. “Yunnan sheng Nongye Ting gaodu zhongshi Nujiang zhou nongye he nongcun jingji fazhan wenti” (The Yunnan Provincial Agricultural Bureau pays close attention to the challenges to agriculture and rural economic development in Nujiang Prefecture). Zhou Nongye Ju Zhongzhi Ye Ke (Nujiang Prefecture Agricultural Bureau). www.njagri.gov.cn/readinfo.asp?B1=223. Accessed November 27, 2008.
Hindess, Barry. 2001. “The Liberal Government of Unfreedom.” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 26 (2): 93–111.
Ho, Joanne. 2004. “Pockets of Poverty in a Fast-Growing Economy: Quantifying Market Shares in Rural Southwest China.” Honors thesis, University of Washington.
Hoang, Cam. 2009. “Forest Thieves? The Politics of Forest Resources in a Northwestern Frontier Valley of Vietnam.” PhD diss., University of Washington.
Hobart, Mark. 1993. “Introduction: The Growth of Ignorance?” In An Anthropological Critique of Development: The Growth of Ignorance, edited by Mark Hobart. New York and London: Routledge, 1–30.
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 2005. Government Whitepaper: Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China. Beijing: Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. www.china.org.cn/e-white/20050301/index.htm. Accessed October 14, 2008.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). n.d. World Heritage Nomination—IUCN Technical Evaluation: Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas (China) ID No 1083. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/1083.pdf. Accessed December 21, 2007.
Jacka, Tamara. 2009. “Cultivating Citizens: Suzhi (Quality) Discourse in the PRC.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 17 (3): 523–35.
Jeffreys, Elaine, ed. 2009. China’s Governmentalities: Governing Change, Changing Government. London and New York: Routledge.
Kaup, Katherine Palmer. 2000. Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Boulder, CO, and London: Lynne Rienner.
Kipnis, Andrew. 2006a. “Suzhi: A Keyword Approach.” China Quarterly 186: 295–313.
———. 2006b. “School Consolidation in Rural China.” Development Bulletin 70: 123–25.
———. 2007. “Neoliberalism Reified: Suzhi Discourse and Tropes of Neoliberalism in the People’s Republic of China.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.) 13: 383–400.
———. 2011. Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lai, Harry Hongyi. 2002. “China’s Western Development Program: Its Rationale, Implementation, and Prospects.” Modern China 28 (4): 432–66.
Lee, James. 1982. “Food Supply and Population Growth in Southwest China, 1250–1850.” Journal of Asian Studies 41 (4): 711–46.
Lee Ching Kwan. 1998. Gender and the South China Miracle: Two Worlds of Factory Women. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lei Guang. 2001. “Reconstituting the Rural-Urban Divide: Peasant Migration and the Rise of Orderly Migration in Contemporary China.” Journal of Contemporary China 10 (28): 471–93.
———. 2005. “The State Connection in China’s Rural-urban Migration.” International Migration Review 39 (2): 354–80.
Li Dezhu. 2003. “Li Dezhu zai Quanguo Di Wu Ci Minzu Jiaoyu Gongzuo Huiyi shang zongjie de jianghua” (Li Dezhu’s summary speech at the 5th National Minority Education Work Conference). Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Jiaoyu Bu (Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China). www.moe.edu.cn/edoas/website18/12/info12112.htm. Accessed June 10, 2008.
Lin Yi. 2007. “Ethnicization through Schooling: The Mainstream Discursive Repertoires of Ethnic Minorities.” China Quarterly 192: 933–48.
Lopoukhine, Nikita, and Ramasamy Jayakumar. 2006. Report of a Joint Reactive Monitoring Mission to the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, China, from 5 to 15 April 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2006/mis1083-2006.pdf. Accessed October 25, 2008.
MacFarquhar, Roderick, and Michael Schoenhals. 2006. Mao’s Last Revolution. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Mackerras, Colin. 1995. China’s Minority Cultures: Identities and Integration since 1912. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
———. 2003. China’s Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Magee, Darrin. 2006. “Powershed Politics: Yunnan Hydropower under Great Western Development.” China Quarterly 185: 23–41.
Mallee, Hein. 2001. “China’s New Forest Policies.” In Zhongguo Yunnan sheng Tianran Lin Ziyuan Baohu yu Tui Geng Huan Lin Huan Cao Gongcheng shequ diaoyan baogao (A community investigation report into the Natural Forest Protection Plan and Sloping Land Conversion Program in Yunnan Province), edited by Zhao Junchen, Xu Jianchu, and Qi Kang. Kunming: Yunnan Keji Chubanshe, 6–12.
Mao Tse-tung. 1966. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung. Peking: Foreign Language Press. The quote cited in chapter 3 of this book was first published in 1958.
McBeath, Gerald A., and Tse-Kang Leng. 2006. Governance of Biodiversity Conservation in China and Taiwan. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham and Northampton.
Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. 1995. Education Law of the People’s Republic of China. www.moe.edu.cn/english/laws_e.htm. Accessed July 31, 2008.
———. 2002. “Guowuyuan guanyu shenhua gaige jiakuai fazhan minzu jiaoyu de jueding” (Resolution of deepening reform and speeding up development of nationality education). www.moe.edu.cn/edoas/website18/89/info1089.htm. Accessed June 10, 2008.
Monteil, Amandine, and Benoît Vermander. n.d. “Yi Migrant Workers Survey.” Unpublished research article. Cited with permission.
Morgan, Lewis Henry. 1985. Ancient Society. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. Originally published 1877.
Morrison, George Ernest. 2007. An Australian in China. Charleston, SC: Biblio-Bazaar. Originally published 1902.
Mosse, David. 2005. Cultivating Development: An Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice. London and Ann Arbor: Pluto Press.
Mueggler, Erik. 2011. The Paper Road: Archive and Experience in the Botanical Exploration of West China and Tibet. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mullaney, Thomas S. 2011. Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Murphy, Rachel. 2002. How Migrant Labor Is Changing Rural China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
———. 2004. “Turning Peasants into Modern Chinese Citizens: ‘Population Quality’ Discourse, Demographic Transition and Primary Education.” China Quarterly 177: 1–20.
Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. 2002. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives. London and New York: Routledge.
National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2004. China Statistical Yearbook 2004. Beijing: China Statistics Press.
National Bureau of Statistics of China Online. 2006. China Statistical Yearbook 2006. www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2006/indexeh.htm. Accessed October 10, 2007.
———. 2009. China Statistical Yearbook 2009. www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2009/indexeh.htm. Accessed April 23, 2011.
———. 2011. China Statistical Yearbook 2011. www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2011/indexeh.htm. Accessed October 8, 2012.
National Compulsory Education Fee Reform Leading Office. n.d. “Gongzuo jieshao” (Work introduction). www.qgbzb.cee.edu.cn/show_news.jsp?id=903. Accessed November 13, 2008.
Naughton, Barry. 2007. The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.
Nujiang Lisuzu zizhizhou gaikuang (Nujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture Survey). 1986. Kunming: Yunnan Minzu Chubanshe.
Nujiang News. 2005. “Gongshan xian quanmian jiakuai jiaoyu gaige bu cu fazhan” (Gongshan County fully speeds up educational reform efforts to advance development). November 16. www.nujiang.gov.cn/nj/72340168526266368/20051129/6553.html. Accessed March 20, 2008.
Nujiang Prefecture Labor and Social Guarantee Bureau. 2008. “Nujiang zhou Laodong he Shehui Baozhang Ju jiaqiang laowu shuchu cujin nongmin zengshou” (Gongshan County Labor and Social Guarantee Bureau—strengthen labor export—accelerate the growth of farmer incomes). www.ynnjl.gov.cn/readinfo.aspx?B1=1108. Accessed November 27, 2008.
Peterson, Glen. 1994. “State Literacy Ideologies and the Transformation of Rural China.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 32: 95–120.
Postiglione, Gerard A. 2000. “National Minority Regions: Studying School Discontinuation.” In The Ethnographic Eye: Interpretive Studies of Education in China, edited by Judith Liu, Heidi A. Ross, and Donald P. Kelly. New York and London: Falmer Press, 51–71.
———. 2006. “Schooling and Inequality in China.” In Education and Social Change in China: Inequality in a Market Economy, edited by Gerard A. Postiglione. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 3–24.
Pun Ngai. 2005. Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Ridley, Charles P., Paul H. B. Godwin, and Dennis J. Doolin. 1971. The Making of a Model Citizen in Communist China. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Rock, Joseph Francis Charles. 1947. The Ancient Na-Khi Kingdom of Southwest China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rose, Archibald, and J. Coggin Brown. 1910. “Lisu (Yawyin) Tribes of the Burma-China Frontier.” Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal III (4): 249–77.
Rossi, Benedetta. 2004. “Revisiting Foucauldian Approaches: Power Dynamics in Development Discourse.” Journal of Development Studies 40 (6): 1–29.
Sachs, Wolfgang, ed. 1992. The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. London and New Jersey: Zen Books.
Sautman, Barry. 1999. “Expanding Access to Higher Education for China’s National Minorities: Policies for Preferential Admissions.” In China’s National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling and Development, edited by Gerard A. Postiglione. New York and London: Falmer Press, 173–210.
Schuster, Brenda L. 2009. “Gaps in the Silk Road: An Analysis of Population Health Disparities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.” China Quarterly 198: 433–41.
Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press.
Shen Shicai, Andreas Wilkes, Qian Jie, Yin Lun, Ren Jian, and Zhang Fudou. 2010. “Agrobiodiversity and Biocultural Heritage in the Dulong Valley, China.” Mountain Research and Development 30 (3): 205–11.
Sigley, Gary. 1996. “Governing Chinese Bodies: The Significance of Studies in the Concept of Governmentality for the Analysis of Government in China.” Economy and Society 25 (4): 457–82.
———. 2004. “Liberal Despotism: Population Planning, Subjectivity, and Government in Contemporary China.” Alternatives 29: 557–75.
———. 2006. “Chinese Governmentalities: Government, Governance and the Socialist Market Economy.” Economy and Society 35 (4): 487–508.
Sivaramakrishnan, K., and Arun Agrawal. 2003. “Regional Modernities in Stories and Practices of Development.” In Regional Modernities: The Cultural Politics of Development in India, edited by K. Sivaramakrishnan and Arun Agrawal. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1–61.
Smil, Vaclav. 1984. The Bad Earth: Environmental Degradation in China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Solinger, Dorothy J. 1999. Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State, and the Logic of the Market. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stalin, Joseph. 1940. Dialectical and Historical Materialism. New York: International Publishers.
Sun Changmin. 2000. “The Floating Population and Internal Migration in China.” In The Changing Population of China, edited by Peng Xizhe and Guo Zhigang. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 179–91.
Sun Hongkai and Liu Guangkun. 2009. A Grammar of Anong: Language Death under Intense Contact. Translated, annotated, and supplemented by Li Fengxiang, Ela Thurgood, and Graham Thurgood. Leiden: Brill. Originally published in Chinese in 2005.
Teng Xing and Wang Jun, eds. 2001. 20 shiji Zhongguo shaoshu minzu yu jiaoyu: Lilun, zhengce yu shijian (Chinese ethnic minorities and education in the twentieth century: Theory, policy and practice). Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
Thøgersen, Stig. 2002. A County of Culture: Twentieth-Century China Seen from the Village Schools of Zouping, Shandong. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Trac, Christine Jane, Stevan Harrell, Thomas M. Hinckley, and Amanda C. Henck. 2007. “Reforestation Programs in Southwest China: Reported Success, Observed Failure, and the Reasons Why.” Journal of Mountain Science 4 (4): 275–92.
Uchida, Emi, Xu Jintao, and Scott Rozelle. 2005. “Grain for Green: Cost-Effectiveness and Sustainability of China’s Conservation Set-Aside Program.” Land Economics 81 (2): 247–64.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2007. “World Heritage.” http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/. Accessed December 6, 2007.
United Nations Environment Programme/World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP/WCMC). 2003. “Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas.” Protected Areas and World Heritage. www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/Three_Parallel.html. Accessed October 26, 2008.
Wang Rong. 2008. “Reform of the Rural Compulsory Education Assured Funding Mechanism: Policy Design Perspective.” Chinese Education and Society 41 (1): 9–16.
Wang Ying, Liu Liu, Gu Yunwei, and Cheng Qiping. 2006. “Pinkun Nujiang shengtai zainan de genyuan” (The reasons behind impoverished Nujiang’s environmental catastrophe). Yunnan ribao wang (Yunnan daily online). January 13. www.yndaily.com/html/20060113/news_88_851627.html. Accessed December 11, 2007.
Ward, F. Kingdon. 1923. “From the Yangtze to the Irrawaddy.” Geographical Journal 62 (1): 6–18.
———. 1986. Mystery Rivers of Tibet. London: Cadogan Books. Originally published 1923.
Watts, Jonathan. 2010. When a Billion Chinese Jump: How China Will Save Mankind—Or Destroy It. London: Faber and Faber.
Weber, Eugen. 2007. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Originally published 1976.
Weyerhaeuser, Horst, Andreas Wilkes, and Fredrich Kahrl. 2005. “Local Impacts and Responses to Regional Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation Programs in China’s Northwest Yunnan Province.” Agricultural Systems 85: 234–53.
Wiens, Herold J. 1967. Han Chinese Expansion in South China. Hamden: Shoe String Press. Originally published 1954 under the title China’s March Toward the Tropics.
Wilkes, Andreas. 2000. “Environmental Ideologies: Ways of Talking about Nature & People in Gongshan County, Nujiang, China.” In Links between Culture and Biodiversity—Proceedings of the Cultures and Biodiversity Congress, Kunming 2000, edited by Xu Jianchu. Kunming: Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 41–50.
———. 2005a. “Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge Community Livelihoods Program Working Paper 12: Forest Resource Governance in an Agro-Pastoralist Community in Northwest Yunnan: ‘Institutional Bricolage’ as a Way of Understanding the Role of Village Autonomy in Resource Management.” Kunming: Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge.
———. 2005b. “Ethnic Minorities, Environment and Development in Yunnan: The Institutional Contexts of Biocultural Knowledge Production in Southwest China.” PhD diss., University of Kent at Canterbury.
Wilkes, Andreas, and Shen Shicai. 2007. “Is Biocultural Heritage a Right? A Tale of Conflicting Conservation, Development, and Biocultural Priorities in Dulongjiang, China.” Policy Matters 15: 76–83. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/pm15_section_2.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2012.
Wilkes, Andreas, and Yang Xuefei. 2000a. “‘Zala’ she: Cunmin zenme he ziran ziyuan shenghuo zai yiqi (xie gei ‘Zala’ cunmin de yi fen baogao)” (“Zala” community: How do villagers and natural resources coexist? [A report for the villagers of “Zala”]). Cited with permission.
———. 2000b. “‘Zala’ zirancun shengwu duoyang xing yingxiang yinsu fenxi zuizhong baogao” (Final report on the analysis of factors affecting biodiversity in “Zala” natural village). Cited with permission.
World Bank. 2009. From Poor Areas to Poor People: China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda—An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China. Vol. 1. Beijing: World Bank. www.worldbank.org/research/2009/03/10444409/china-poor-areas-poor-people-chinas-evolving-poverty-reduction-agenda-assessment-poverty-inequality-china-vol-1-2-main-report. Accessed October 10, 2011.
Wu Meng and Wang Liang. 1995. Xiaoxuesheng guoqing shi zhidao (The ten things primary school children should know about national conditions). Yunnan: Zhongguo Shaonian Ertong Chubanshe.
Xiao Jianwen. 2005. “Yunnan sheng Shengwu Duoyang Xing yu Chuantong Zhishi Yanjiu Hui: Shequ Shengji Bu Yanjiu Baogao 24—Dulongjiang Tui Geng Huan Lin dui nongye shengwu duoyang xing de yingxiang: Chubu diaocha jieguo” (Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge: Community Livelihood Report 24—Preliminary survey of the impact of the Sloped Land Conversion on agro-biodiversity in Dulongjiang town). www.cbik.ac.cn/Files/DownLoad/CBIKWP24CHIN.pdf. Accessed December 20, 2007.
Xinhuanet. 2006. “Gongshan linye cangsang jubian wushi nian—Gongshan Dulongzu Nuzu zizhixian linye shiye 50 nian huihang chengjiu” (50 years of dramatic forestry change in Gongshan—Gongshan Dulong and Nu Nationalities Autonomous County’s 50 years of brilliant achievements in forestry). September 26. www.yn.xinhuanet.com/live/2006-09/26/content_8136820.htm. Accessed December 10, 2007.
Xinhua News Agency. 2011. “China’s ‘Floating Population’ Exceeds 221 Mln.” March 1. www.china.org.cn/china/2011-03/01/content_22025827.htm. Accessed October 22, 2011.
Xue Lan Rong and Shi Tianjian. 2001. “Inequality in Chinese Education.” Journal of Contemporary China 10 (26): 107–24.
Xue Ye and Wang Yongchen. 2007. “Highly Controversial Hydropower Development in Western China.” In The China Environment Yearbook (2005): Crisis and Breakthrough of China’s Environment, edited by Liang Congjie and Yang Dongping. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 63–88.
Xu Jialu. 2006. “Xu Jialu: Yiwu jiaoyu jinru mianfei shidai” (Xu Jialu: compulsory education enters a free of charge era). Interview, CCTV.com. Juece zhe shuo (Policymakers speak). http://news.cctv.com/education/20060811/104987.shtml. Accessed November 13, 2008.
Xu Jianchu and David R. Melick. 2007. “Rethinking the Effectiveness of Public Protected Areas in Southwestern China.” Conservation Biology 21 (2): 318–28.
Xu Jianchu and Andreas Wilkes. 2004. “Biodiversity Impact Analysis in Northwest Yunnan, Southwest China.” Biodiversity and Conservation 13 (5): 959–83.
Xu Zhigang, M. T. Bennet, Ran Tao, and Xu Jintao. 2004. “China’s Sloping Land Conversion Programme Four Years On: Current Situation and Pending Issues.” International Forestry Review 6 (3–4): 317–26.
Yang Dongping. 2007. “China’s Environmental Protection at the Crossroads.” In The China Environment Yearbook (2005): Crisis and Breakthrough of China’s Environment, edited by Liang Congjie and Yang Dongping. Leiden and Boston: Brill, xxi–lix.
Yang Yuhua. 2006. “Laowu shuchu chengwei wo zhou nongmin zengshou de xin liangdian” (Labor export becomes a bright new platform for increasing the income of the prefecture’s rural population). Nujiang bao (Nujiang news). October 26. www.nujiang.gov.cn/nj/72340168526266368/20061026/77616.html. Accessed March 17, 2008.
———. 2007. “Puladi xiang laowu shuchu gongzuo chengxiao tuchu” (Puladi township’s labor export work results break through). Nujiang bao (Nujiang news). April 2. www.nujiang.gov.cn/nj/72340168526266368/20070402/116371.html. Accessed March 17, 2008.
Yang Yunhui. 2007. “Dulong cun de ‘pu jiu’ zhi lu: Jiaoyu zenyang fuchi dou buguo fen” (The path toward “nine-year compulsory education” in Dulongjiang: There can never be too much support for education). Zhongguo jiaoyu bao (China education news). July 9. www.edu.cn/ji_jiao_news_279/20070709/t20070709_241828.shtml. Accessed April 16, 2008.
Yan Hairong. 2003a. “Neoliberal Governmentality and Neohumanism: Organizing Suzhi/Value Flow through Labor Recruitment Networks.” Cultural Anthropology 18 (4): 493–523.
———. 2003b. “Spectralization of the Rural: Reinterpreting the Labor Mobility of Rural Young Women in Post-Mao China.” American Ethnologist 30 (4): 578–96.
Yardley, Jim. 2004. “Dam Building Threatens China’s ‘Grand Canyon.’” New York Times. March 10. www.nytimes.com/2004/03/10/international/asia/10RIVE.html. Accessed February 12, 2005.
Yeh, Emily T. 2000. “Forest Claims, Conflicts and Commodification: The Political Ecology of Tibetan Mushroom-Harvesting Villages in Yunnan Province, China.” China Quarterly 161: 264–78.
Yunnan Daily Online. 2007. “Gongshan Dulongzu Nuzu zizhixian Xianwei Shuji Zhu Yuhua: Baohu huanjing cu ke chixu fazhan” (Gongshan Dulong and Nu Nationalities Autonomous County Party Secretary Zhu Yuhua: Protect the environment to sustain development). January 23. www.yndaily.com/html/20070123/news_92_173665.html. Accessed December 10, 2007.
Yunnan Representative Office of the China Work-Study Agency. n.d. Gongxue fupin xingdong (Work-study poverty alleviation program). Kunming: Zhongguo Gongxue She Yunnan Daibiao Chu.
Zhang Huijun, Chen Tiejun, and He Runpei. 1997. Nujiang xiagu jingji (The Nujiang gorge economy). Kunming: Yunnan Renmin Chubanshe.
Zhang Peichang, Shao Guofan, Zhao Guang, Dennis C. Le Master, George R. Parker, John B. Dunning Jr., and Li Qinglin. 2000. “China’s Forest Policy for the 21st Century.” Science 288 (5474): 2135–36.
Zhang Tiedao and Zhao Minxia. 2006. “Universalizing Nine-Year Compulsory Education for Poverty Reduction in Rural China.” International Review of Education 52: 261–86.
Zhao Dayong. 2008. Ghost Town. Hong Kong: Lantern Films.